Download PDF Jérémi et les Bizous. (French Edition)
Technicolor is thus the famous descendant of a most respectable ancestry. The story of its birth and origin generally begins with the youthful partnership of three undergraduates of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. They gave us:—. But to give credit where credit is due, these three items were the reincarnation of ideas first conceived respectively by:—. These are the indubitable ancestors of Technicolor but at present they seem to occupy rather obscure niches in our motion-picture Hall of Fame.
First Laboratory: A railway car, equipped with chemical laboratory, darkroom, fire-proof safes, power plant and offices. Services included sensitizing, perforating, processing negative, conditioned air, examination of film and making control measurements and tests. It was financed by Technicolor. Camera Single lens. Prism Divider. Pair of images of normal dimensions viz. Silent frame. Projection Double aperture with filters inserted.
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Adjustment of register with glass wedge. Special arc and projection optical system. Original beam-splitter used for the negative records. Insufficient laboratory capacity prevented prints from being delivered until following year. Price 27 cents a foot. Producers declared 8 cents limit.
Capacity 1,, ft. Small laboratory unit founded in Hollywood.
Paramount made Wanderers of the Wasteland. One hundred and seventy-five made at 15 cents per foot. Twelve two-reelers were sanctioned for production by Technicolor. Twelve million feet of negative required and 60,, feet of positive. Technicolor appropriated 3,, dollars for plant, equipment and research. Walt Disney made Flowers and Trees the first three-colour production.
Exclusive three year contract signed with Disney. Basic price for prints 5 cents per foot. First feature three-colour production Walter Wangert Trail of the Lonesome Pine with exteriors followed. Plant now making 2,, feet of prints a month. Processed in the Hollywood plant,. By this date some 23 cameras bad been built, costing , each. Monopack Kodachrome modified used for first time for the exteriors only in a major studio production, M. Two- or three-colour dye-transfer printing by successive imbibitions from wash-off gelatine relief matrices.
Registration effected by travelling pin-belt. Film base is coated on one side with a positive emulsion which is used for printing the sound track, picture key, and frame surrounds. The dyes are transferred subsequent to the completion of the silver print.
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Single film records the direct beam. The bi-pack consists of a blue recording front film, the emulsion surface of which is coated with a red filter excluding green and blue light from the rear film, which being coated with a red sensitive emulsion records red light only. The single film bears a green sensitive emulsion. Since each projection positive frame requires three successively exposed negatives, time and space parallax must prohibit the photography by this method of moving subject matter.
The method is therefore employed for the photography of still subject matter such as animated drawings, titles, or trick firms of any description. From this positive colour film see Kodachrome either mm. From these separation negatives positive printing relief matrices can be printed by a suitable skipping optical printer.
Technicolor Lenses. In colour photography it is necessary to analyse the light reflected by coloured objects into at least three spectral regions which, where there are three only, may be termed red, green, and blue respectively. This is done by means of colour filters which transmit definite portions of the spectrum and absorb the rest; the three negatives are produced either successively or simultaneously.
In cinematography the negatives must, of course, be made simultaneously unless the rate of movement of the film is increased threefold, to which there are grave objections. The three negatives may be made simultaneously by means of three lenses; this results in colour parallax, and the three images will never exactly superpose. Alternatively, the beam of light issuing from a single objective must be divided.
This division may be made by means of superposed filters, the components of white light being successively subtracted and acting on sensitized films superposed.
The objections to this are that the films and filters must be very thin if the composite tripack and filter film is not to be too thick, and that each layer of emulsion produces a certain amount of scattering, so that the successive images are more and more diffused. Other methods of dividing the beam are by successive reflections from thin, partly reflecting and partly transmitting films, which may be either isolated films of collodion or films of silver on glass surfaces.
The silver may be in the form of totally reflecting films partly covering the surfaces on which they are deposited, a method not without objection, since the areas of film must be small if there is not to be differentiation between different parts of the light beams; alternatively, the silver films may be so thin as both to reflect and transmit.
The Technicolor process is, optically speaking, a combination of two processes suggested above. One semi-reflecting metallic film on the diagonal plane of a glass cube is combined with a bipack, to which the objections of the tripack do not altogether apply, as the two sensitive films can be placed in contact. The glass cube placed between the lens and the film has considerable thickness being approximately equal to the size of field covered and therefore produces considerable aberration.
The result was poor definition and images of unequal sizes. Technicolor, however, early realized the necessity for taking the prism into account in the design of the lens system, and in D. Comstock took out a patent B. In , however, their prism system was simplified and the need felt for the lenses of larger aperture, owing to the change in cinema technique from outdoor to studio photography. This was for two-colour work. With the change to three-colour work in , a further change was needed, and, moreover, the matter of colour correction became more stringent. However, since, in the new Technicolor process, only two images are formed in a plane at right angles thereto, it is possible to allow for the slightly different focus for the green, if the foci for the red and blue coincide.
These, then, were the conditions to be fulfilled: the red and blue foci must coincide, the tolerance being that the blue focus might be 0. The green focus could be 0. As there is inevitably some loss of definition in colour processing, the definition of the lenses was to be better than that of lenses for non-colour work. Other lenses of focal length 70 mm. Now the secondary spectrum, which required an adjustment of 0. It thus became necessary to reduce the secondary spectrum with the longer focus lenses. Fortunately, the Parsons Optical Glass Co.
By judicious incorporation of this glass in one or two components in the longer-focus lenses, these were designed to give approximately the same difference between the green focus and red-blue focus as in the standard lens. A further interesting problem arose when short-focus lenses were required, because, with normal types, there is not sufficient clearance between the lens and the focal plane to accommodate the prism.
Ball of Technicolor had tried placing a negative lens in front of an ordinary cinematograph-taking lens, the distance between the two being greater than the focal length of the positive lens; thereby he decreased the focal length and at the same time displaced the nodal plane towards the focal plane, giving greater clearance. A negative lens so placed, however, introduces considerable barrel distortion.
Jérémi et les Bizous. (French Edition)
The same stringency as to colour correction, of course, applies to this lens E. The closeness of the limits for colour correction necessitates special precautions in manufacture. In a batch of lenses made to very close tolerances of radius and thickness and made from identical glass melts, it is rare to find the chromatic corrections identical to the Technicolor specification, owing to small variations in the composition of glass throughout the pot.
The assembled lenses are first tested for focus throughout the spectrum on a collimator illuminated through a constant deviation prism. If necessary, alterations are then made to bring the chromatic corrections right. Finally, a photographic check is made. An inclined object consisting of parallel lines is photographed through the actual colour filters used by Technicolor. The Technicolor arrangement of films is a derivative of the semidialyte system of J. Bennetto E. The optical system is the work of Messrs.
Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation. An oscillating film gate causing the film to engage alternately a claw feed mechanism and fixed registration pins. This movement provides the ideal conditions for registration accuracy by virtue mainly of the fixed registration pins.
Optical defects due to imperfect contact of bipack in the camera gate have always presented an annoying snag. In this patent the two films are separated by a pin presumably recessed just before they enter the gate, the idea being to feed the two films along a gradually converging path in order to exclude air-pockets by progressively squeezing out the air on the approach of the two films to the gate.
Means are also provided for lubricating the films with a light mineral oil. This is done by oil-saturated pads between which the films run obliquely immediately before they are separated by the pin above mentioned.
The use of oil for such lubrication would seem to invite trouble arising from spread of oil over image areas on the film Fig.